A Reluctant Dispensationalist

Some of you know that I am a reluctant dispensationalist.  In writing this (actually re-writing it) I thought it appropriate to use my moniker as a title.   

Dispensationalists have not always done themselves many favors.  They have sometimes squandered the opportunity to make profound long term contributions to the Church through the publishing of detailed commentaries, biblical and systematic theologies and the like, for the sake of short term pragmatic and populist goals.  Bestsellers seldom influence the direction of biblical teaching for long, if at all.  And although the sin of academic obfuscation should be avoided and the merit of conciseness recognized, the Truth is properly respected when its deeps are probed and its channels explored.

For this reason, Dispensationalists are not, or should not be, fixated on the defense of a system.  Any approach to theology must be concerned with only one thing – its adequacy as an explanation of the whole Bible.  We may be persuaded that we have gotten certain things right.  That is a good thing.  But the last word will not be said in this life.  We must take seriously the obligation to explore and expound the Scriptures as we try to improve on what we know (and what we think we know).  The explanatory power of Dispensationalism has often been concealed behind the well-meaning but rather myopic views of its defenders.  Not that it doesn’t sorely need some trained defenders, but much more it needs knowledgeable and courageous exponents.

We have work to do to make Dispensational theology more prescriptive.  We like to call it a system, but we have often been less than adventurous in our proposals for a systematic expression of the Dispensational outlook in all areas of theology and its attendant disciplines (e.g. worldview and apologetics; biblical counseling).  “Why reinvent the wheel?” the satisfied objector complains.  Okay, I reply, but can’t we improve the wheel a bit?  Can’t we look the whole thing over and tighten things up here and iron out a problem or two there?  Can’t we make it run better and farther?

God has given us the Bible to understand Him, ourselves, and our world.  He has not just given the Bible to tell us how to get saved.  We understand from Scripture that we need a Savior and we discover who the Savior is and we discover our responsibility.  Therefore hermeneutics becomes extremely significant to the understanding of truth, reality, God, salvation, and destiny.  God invented communication in order for Him to communicate Himself to man.  From the beginning God created man to understand His revelation; even before the Fall.  God has done the same thing with His Word.  God has created man and given to him His Word in order for God to be understood.  Man has an automatic system of hermeneutics built inside of him in order to interpret God’s revelation.  Of course the affects of sin have perverted our ability to observe and understand revelation.  However, with the regeneration of the Spirit man’s ability is enhanced.  Without hermeneutics we cannot communicate whatsoever, whether reading, writing or speaking.  We need know the correct method of interpretation in order to distinguish between the Voice of God from the voice of man.

Craig Blaising, though identifying as a Progressive Dispensationalist, has shown that this straightforward way of reading Scripture is in agreement with the way performative language is understood (see his essay in The People, the Land, and the Future of Israel, eds, Darrell Bock & Mitch Glaser, esp. 160-161).  In my so-called “Rules of Affinity” I have tried to show that all the primary doctrines of the Christian Faith are drawn from either direct (word for word) affinities between biblical texts and doctrinal propositional statements or from “inevitable” conclusions based on the collusion of those direct affinities.  The Dispensational method of interpretation, which gives preference to these affinities, is therefore naturally geared to producing doctrines from one clear spring of vocabulary, not from a wider variety of murkier ones.

Personally, I am an avid advocate a “Dispensational” account of every aspect of Truth in theology and worldview.  But for this to become a reality I am convinced that it ought to stop defining itself by dispensations and begin opening up the possibilities of unifying itself around the biblical covenants and defining its system and procedures by them. Then a fully-rounded theology which includes all the corpora of theology, not merely ecclesiology and eschatology, will be created, with the result that a Dispensational worldview will be developed and proclaimed.  One may argue back and forth about the dispensations; their number and features, without abandoning “Dispensationalism.”  But one cannot ignore the biblical covenants without demolishing the whole project altogether.  I only wish the position that I love to be freed from the torpidity which is often the unintended outcome of defending a point of view rather than of strengthening it.  I am in sympathy with the Dispensational understanding of the Bible, and it has many advocates more able than I on its side.  My main qualm concerns its understanding of itself.  Many reflective dispensationalists will tell you that the dispensations themselves, both in definition and number, are not at the central core of what it’s all about.  But because the name has stuck it creates almost an apprehension to look beyond it.  The covenants stand there upon the open pages of the Bible but they are rarely heard outside of a prearranged ‘Dispensational’ recital.  Given their wings their power to organize, punctuate, and direct the eschatological movement of the Bible Story is unexcelled – and only “Dispensationalism” is in the right position to unleash their power.  But…those dispensations!

Mt plea is for the biblical covenants to be given their rightful place and dispensations to be made subordinate to them.  This will do nothing but invigorate the whole enterprise.  Nothing would be lost; much would be gained.  And I think the enemies of Dispensational theology would be harder put to disparage it.


God of the Flood – Pt.2

Part One


Where did the waters of the flood come from?  The Gilgamesh Epic and similar flood stories (e.g. Berossus) say that the cause of the flood was a mighty downpour.[1]  There is no great stress laid on the “fountains of the deep” as in Genesis.[2]  But Scripture reveals not just rainfall but massive subterranean upheavals producing water gushes unfathomable in their strength.

In Gilgamesh the craft is a cube about 200 feet square.  Heidel gives its displacement at 228,500 tons.[3]  This is in contrast to Noah’s Ark which was a coffin-shaped craft with a displacement of around 43,300 tons.  The imagination roils envisaging Utnaphistim’s “block” tumbling over the waves!  What living thing, one wonders, could survive such a pummeling?

By contrast the Ark was approximately 450 feet long, 75 feet wide and 45 feet high.[4]  It was designed to float safely on the tumultuous one world ocean.  It was in effect a coffin bobbing on the waters of death.  The earth emerged once more from the waters.  It was a new planet.  As Peter would put it, “the world that then existed perished”.  It has gone, churned over by hydraulic and volcanic forces we can scarcely imagine.  We inhabit, “the heavens and the earth which are now” (2 Peter 3:6-7).  Adam’s world is no more, and we cannot get back to it.  When Noah’s family, together with all their live cargo emerged from their giant “coffin”, they bridged the two worlds, bringing life from death.

A Global Flood?

Sad to relate, but not a few influential writers, often affected by the requirements of scientific respectability, much prefer to propound a localized flood, targeted to one area in which mankind was concentrated.  As Custance has it, there would be too many difficulties getting the animals onto the Ark and then having them spread throughout the earth once off of it.  He thinks the “catastrophe… wiped out mankind still congregated in one area.”[5]  Heidel on the other hand, is forthright:

The impression which this [main Babylonian] story is intended to make obviously is that the flood was universal… The other Babylonian deluge traditions convey the same general impression.[6]

And after giving some of the Genesis account Heidel states,

This account, like the main Babylonian story, plainly asserts the universality of the deluge.[7]

The Bible is unequivocal about the extent of the flood.  It was worldwide.  And this is reinforced by the many flood traditions that have come down to us from almost every ancient culture, whether advanced or “primitive.”  Custance himself mentions traditions from Egypt, India, Peru, Mexico, New Zealand, and many more.  Even the Eskimos have a flood story.  Moreover, the important thematic use of the waters (mayim) in the Creation and Flood accounts, when considered with the uncreation language we have noted in Genesis 6 and the reusing of the “deep” (tehom) in Genesis 7:11, leaves the strong impression that the Flood is a re-immersing of the planet in the “cleansing” waters out of which it came.  If this theme has any credence the waters of the Flood would have to be global.

On a side note, the Chinese word for large boat is a pictograph is made up of characters depicting a vessel, the number eight, and mouth or person.[8]  The present writer used to hold monthly speaking engagements at a Chinese church in Arlington, Texas, and was told that these three symbols referred to a big boat or ship.

To Conclude

To believe in the biblical portrayal of a global flood is to give up on the humanistic ideal of proving the age of the earth using isotope-based methods and slow gradualistic erosion and deposition patterns.  Therefore, any attempts to uncover data to support an old-earth position via physicalist theories will always have to set themselves against the Word of God.  The Ark Encounter is not some corny theme park attraction built solely to impress.  It is a re-experiencing of God’s grace to humanity; of life arising out of death.  Some Christians feel embarrassed by it.  No doubt they feel less embarrassment about reading the Holy Bible with selective guidance provided for them by their unbelieving peers.  Sin will always scoff at God.  We are not much improved over those whom the deluge destroyed.  It is well to be reminded of it!

I have tried to imagine what it would have been like waiting with Noah for God to issue the command to leave the Ark (Gen. 8:15-17).  How sorely tempted he must have been to disembark prematurely.  How greatly his faith must have been tried!  Reason would have furnished him with many well sounding excuses for going rather than waiting for the words of God.  But if Noah had not heeded the words of God he would never have been saved.  And if the God of the Flood had not covenanted never to bring the cataclysmic waters back upon the whole earth we would not have a rational basis for our experience of uniformity.  Neither indeed would we have a hermeneutical basis to trust in the gracious promises of God (cf. Isa. 54:9).  The same God who said that He would never again destroy the earth with a flood also said that He would give life eternal to whoever casts his hopes upon the merits of His Son.  The God of the Gospel is the God of the Flood, the God of the Ark, the God of hope.


[1] Heidel, 240f.

[2] Although the Babylonian account does mention the bursting of the dikes. – Ibid, 248

[3] Ibid, 236

[4] Custance throws some suspicion on these dimensions, thinking the ark too large for a few men to build. See Arthur C. Custance, The Flood: Local or Global?, 37.  He doesn’t consider that Noah might have employed many helpers.

[5] Ibid, 56-57

[6] Alexander Heidel, The Gilgamesh Epic, 249

[7] Ibid, 250

[8] See C.H. Kang & Ethel R. Nelson, The Discovery of Genesis, xii


God of the Flood – Pt.1

This is something I wrote for Dispensational Publishing House

God and the Waters of Creation

In the very first chapter of the Bible there is an awful lot of water.  It does not come from the sky, nor does it run off the mountainous slopes of Hermon.  The waters (mayim) which are mentioned first in Genesis 1:2 are just “there” after the initial act of creation.  These waters are there even before any land is present.  In fact, water is even prior to light. Extraordinary in its properties, it is necessary for physical life, for breathable air, for rain and cloud-cover, as a coolant, a solvent, and for cleansing.[1]  Perhaps the original presence of water at the beginning of things says something about the Divine good pleasure and delight in the physical?

The primitive accounts which have come down to us from the ancient Near East sometimes depict clashing gods and the overcoming of chaos.[2]  Biblical scholars of various stripes have interpreted the Genesis cosmology with reference to such ancient mythological accounts and have surmised scenarios which draw explicitly from them.  These influences are then incorporated into their interpretations of the early chapters of the Book of Genesis.[3]  This is done in spite of the fact that the creation account in Genesis acts as an obvious polemic against these pagan reconstructions.[4]

The fact remains, however, that the world was in a real sense “born” out of water (2 Pet. 3:5).  God created “the deep” (tehom).  There is good reason to think that the tehom and the mayim refer to the same thing.[5]

God and the Waters of the Flood

It is only natural therefore that Moses should employ these same words, prominent in the creation account, in his description of the great flood of Noah.  Even more is this the case when one considers the reason for God bringing the flood in the first place.  It was not for the petty reason given in pagan versions, such as that the powerful god Enlil thought men were too noisy, as recorded in the Atrahasis Epic.[6]  We owe it to ourselves to ponder the words of Genesis 6:5-7:

Then the LORD saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every intent of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually.  And the LORD was sorry that He had made man on the earth, and He was grieved in His heart.  So the LORD said, “I will destroy man whom I have created from the face of the earth, both man and beast, creeping thing and birds of the air, for I am sorry that I have made them.

Since God, who is revealed as being so concerned with the good, had taken such care to create a world for man and had endowed him with His own image (Gen 1:3-31), would be brought to think of decimating it is surely shocking.  That such a thoughtful God, who had made a special paradise for Adam and Eve where He would consort with them (Gen. 2:7-15; 3:8a) could utter words of sad regret[7] over the scene should make us wonder at human sin.  We ought to shudder that in such a comparatively short time wickedness had engulfed the race, and righteous Noah was surrounded by sin on all sides before Yahweh erased the picture using the same substance out of which it came.  What we have recorded in Genesis 6:7 is God’s desire to repeal His creative actions; an un-creation oracle.[8]   God was sick and tired of supporting that malicious prediluvial society.  The “waters” would come again.  But there would be grace.[9]


[1] For the amazing dexterity and importance of water see G. Gonzalez & J. W. Richards, The Privileged Planet.

[2] Although it is well to reflect upon the fact that behind many polytheisms there was a great God.  This is hardly better brought out than in the fourth chapter of G.K. Chesterton’s The Everlasting Man.

[3] See for example John H. Walton’s influential book, The Lost World of Genesis One, 55-56.  Walton gives little attention to the polemical intent of Genesis 1.  G. K. Beale, who admits to being influenced by Walton, refers to God achieving “heavenly rest after overcoming the creational chaos…” – A New Testament Biblical Theology, 40.  See also, 247 n.44; 630 n.36.

[4] See John D. Currid, Against the Gods: The Polemical Theology of the Old Testament

[5] Jonathan D. Sarfati, The Genesis Account, 105-107

[6] So Alexander Heidel, The Gilgamesh Epic and Old Testament Parallels, 225-226.  “[T]hey became so noisy as to deprive Enlil of his sleep.”

[7] We must not philosophize too much about God’s impassibility and His imperviousness to emotion.  Did not God incarnate express exasperation at His disciples (Mk. 8:15-21), or anger at the hard-hearted Pharisees (Mk. 3:5)?  For a good treatment of the subject, see Rob Lister, God Impassible and Impassioned.

[8] A similar more extended un-creation oracle is found in Jeremiah 4:23-27

[9] “In the Gilgamesh Epic there was no thought of granting mankind an opportunity to repent.” – Heidel, 230.  It was the god Ea who went behind the back of Enlil to protect his favorite Utnaphistim.

The Cruciality of Christ – Pt. 2

Part One

We have been considering the centrality of the Person of Jesus for an understanding of ourselves in the created order.  We continue with a look at the Prologue to John’s Gospel.

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was in the beginning with God. All things were made through him, and without him was not any thing made that was made. – John 1:1-3

So again, this shows us that Christ is right at the very center of the creation. In fact, creation is made for Him, and not only through Him. It is not that God used the Second Person to make the world and then He had no further interest in it. No! These things were made for Him and nothing was made unless it was made through the agency of Jesus Christ and to the satisfaction of Jesus Christ as the Second Person of the Trinity.

As we told are told here in John 1:1, ‘In the beginning was the Word’, that Word is to be equated as it is by John with the words spoken by God in Genesis 1:

In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth. The earth was without form and void, and darkness was over the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God was hovering over the face of the waters. And God said, “Let there be light,” and there was light. – Genesis 1:1-3

…that “saying” or “speaking” of God was not just in audible words; it didn’t require audible words anymore than the healing of the centurion’s servant required them.  In all probability there would not have been any other creature around other than God to hear them.  But the Word was the expression, the idea of God’s mind and will coming through the instrumentality of the Second Person of the Trinity, whom John calls the Logos.

With this introduction John insisted Jesus’ origin and nature are incomprehensible if seen solely in terms of this world. Only when we read it in the light of his pre-incarnate deity does Jesus’ story makes sense; that is why this prologue is here. It tells us who the subject really is so we can better understand his story. To show Christ’s preexistence requires that it identify the Word with Jesus, which the prologue does in John 1:14-17. – Douglas McCready, He Came Down from Heaven, 140

What McCready has said here is most important for us to get.  To repeat, we must start in our study of Jesus Christ by realizing who He really is: that He is God; that He is the pre-existent personal Deity.  Unless we do that, we don’t grasp John’s message.  Neither can we have a satisfactory Christology.  McGready continues in connection with John’s prologue:

Much of this passage has parallels in contemporary Jewish and Hellenistic literature, but when we get to verse 14, ‘the Word became flesh and made his dwelling among us’, we find a statement that would scandalize both Jew and Greek. The extra-biblical parallels that do exist provide little more than points of contact for John’s message; none determined how John would describe Jesus.  – Ibid.

John does not rely either on the Greek concept of the Logos or on the Hebrew concept of theDabar-Yahweh – the word of the Lord.

The concepts of logos [Greek] and word [Jewish] both pointed to something of universal significance that had its home outside the temporal world, although each affected the world and played a role in its coming into existence. So when John wrote of the logospeople may not have understood precisely what he was saying but they knew he was talking about something very important. John’s key differences from these two traditions were to present the Logos as someone not something, to affirm his complete deity, and particularly for the Greeks, to proclaim he had taken up residence in this world. The ancient world had no trouble with supernatural beings and little difficulty with the reality of this world, to the Hellenists; however, the Divine could not contaminate Himself by entering into the physical realm. Jews were familiar with theophanies in the Old Testament but these were not incarnations; God was spirit and so could not become part of the physical realm.  The Hellenists could follow John until verse 14 when he would be horrified by the thought of the ‘word becoming flesh’. Conversely a Jewish reader would object to the anthropomorphism implicit in the claim that a man known to history was himself the revelation of the invisible God rather than an inspired messenger like the prophets. Only a few verses often introducing this Logos Word, John identified him as the man Jesus of Nazareth – Ibid, 140-141.

This is what we must grasp right off the bat!  We must fully ponder the great significance of the designation “the Logos,” but within the safe confines provided by Scripture’s own definitional framework.  The One “through whom and by whom and for whom all things were created and cohere” (as Paul puts it), enters our world, becoming flesh.

Therefore, the doctrines of the full deity of Christ and the personal preexistence of Christ are critical to a correct Christological outlook.  But further of course, because He is also our Creator, our understanding of the creation and our place in it should be Christologically conditioned.

We see this truth surface more once we connect the original creative work of Christ with the redemptive work of Christ (I know there is something anachronistic about referring to the Creator as “Christ” before His Incarnation, the anachronism is lessened considerably by the knowledge that the Second Person and the Messiah are identical).  As we’ve seen, He is the One for whom everything is created, and He is the One who upholds all things; even now upholding a fallen creation.  Because He continues to uphold a fallen creation, and especially a fallen humanity, the fact of the Incarnation – that He has become flesh and entered our space – to do noting less than allow Himself to be abused and humiliated and betrayed and murdered by His creatures in order to save them is indeed nothing short of astounding!  No wonder the angels desire to learn more of this: this “through Him and for Him”!

He is the one who takes away the sin of the world, and He is the One who will renovate this planet and restore it to Edenic beauty (Rom. 8:18-23), and rule on it until He has made it into something He can present to His Father (1 Cor. 15:20-28).  It was in the knowledge of this work that He instituted the Lord’s Supper (Mk. 14:22-25), and promised:

This is My blood of the new covenant,
which is shed for many.
Assuredly, I say to you, I will no longer drink of the fruit of the
vine until that day when I drink it new in the kingdom of God.

This One has entered this “present evil age” and has died on the Cross for the sins of mankind and has risen again for our justification and for our hope.  And He is coming again as the coming King to reign over this creation.  Indeed, it is precisely because this world is Christ’s world that I must reject any theology which would assert that the returning King will come only to dispense with it and replace it without making something worthy of it, and that despite the stain of Sin having penetrated into its very fabric.  Although the curse cannot be lifted from off of this earth, and it will eventually have to be replaced with a “New Heaven and New Earth” where “there will be no more curse” (Rev. 22:3), yet the stain of Sin will not prevent the Savior from delivering it up to the Father for His approval and blessing.  This is one important theological apology for premillennialism.

We can see therefore the cruciality of Jesus Christ!  It is not just an article of faith, but this is the way that history is…the explanation for why we’re here and where things are going and what is going to be the end of all things.  And the end of all things will be all about the Person of Jesus Christ!


The Cruciality of Christ – Pt 1

Right now I am rather preoccupied with preparing for a surprise new one in August.  I posted this study some years back and thought it slipped through the cracks.  Anyway, here’s part 1.  Part 2 to follow soon. 


For the Christian, without the Lord Jesus Christ life means nothing.  Whatever other people say; however the non-Christian tries to answer the question of meaning, the Christian sees no answer to the big questions of life; no remedy for the plight of man, without Jesus Christ.

In the Lord Jesus is truly the explanation for the way that life was originally, the way that it is now as a fallen creation, and the way that it’s going to be in the future. Everything resolves itself around the Him. Indeed, Christianity without the work and person of the Jesus is unthinkable. With Christianity, if you take out the Lord Jesus Christ then you are left with nothing. You are left with just a man-made morality and with nothing else. You are left with no transcendent point by which the world; ourselves included, can be understood.  In fact, what you are left with, as the unbelieving philosopher Feuerbach said, is mere anthropology; man musing upon himself – just using the metaphors of deity.  So, Christianity truly, as W.H. Griffith Thomas put it,” is Christ.”

Christ is the one who has been “set forth,” as Paul puts it in the Book of Colossians, “by the Fatherfor mankind.”  We have to view things through Jesus Christ in order to get them in the right balance and perspective.

When we study about Jesus the first thing that we have to realize is that it is a personal study.  Further, from a believing viewpoint, it is personal, both for ourselves as Christians, and also on the side of the Lord! He wants us to represent Him correctly.  He wants us to have correct thoughts and feelings about Him, and He wants these thoughts and feelings to be reflected in our worship and in our daily lives.  How sad it is that we can be such hypocrites in our representation of our Lord!  While hypocrisy does not logically destroy a truth-claim, it does nothing to endear that truth-claim to onlookers either.  Truth must be served both with fidelity in content and in practice.

I’ve already said that Christianity is Christ; without Jesus Christ there is simply no Christian faith at all.  I want to underline that point in the rest of this lecture.

Yet for us there is one God, the Father, from whom are all things and for whom we exist…

This is telling us that the Father is the source of all things and we have been created by Him and for His glory.

 … and one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom are all things and through whom we exist. I Corinthians 8:6

This means that Jesus Christ is the ‘Instrument’ of all creation. It is through Him that everything was made.

In the first part of the verse Paul says the creation is made for the Father, and that is certainly true.  But there are other passages which will claim that this world was also made for the Son.


For by him all things were created, in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or rulers or authorities–all things were created through him and forhim. And he is before all things, [that is prior to all things] and in him all things hold together. – Colossians 1:16, 17


Colossians is all about the preeminence of Jesus Christ. And here we are told quite clearly that byChrist everything was created.  (This can also be translated ‘through him’ but usually the preposition there is translated ‘by’).

So, everything that has been created, whether they are visible things or invisible things – because of course the Christian worldview includes invisible entities like angels, as well as visible things, – that these things in their respective hierarchies were created by Christ. But, not only were they created by Christ or through Christ, but they were also created for Christ. The preposition eis there, meaning “towards,” or “for,” or “unto” Christ.  Hence, the Lord Jesus Christ is the one through whom all things were created, and also the One for Whom they were created.  (more…)

The Worldview of the Wisdom Books

Here’s a revision of an old post.  I hope it edifies.

The Wisdom books provide us with a great deal of profitable information to help us live wisely and piously in the midst of our age of uncertainty. Here is a brief attempt to construct a worldview oriented to the perspective of these books.

Foundation for Thought.

Throughout these three books (but especially in Proverbs) there is to be seen a clear antithesis between God-centered (Theistic) thinking, and man-centered (Anti-theistic) thinking. To “fear the Lord” (Prov. 1:7; Job 28:28) is said to be the beginning of knowledge, and to despise it is to eschew wisdom and instruction. Moreover, to know God in His holiness is to find understanding (Prov. 9:10). These things – the fear of the Lord and the knowledge of the holy – must be in place before the ear is truly open to wisdom (Prov. 1:2-5). To proceed without such understanding (Eccles. 12:13) is to expend one’s life in vanity and emptiness (Eccles. 2:11, 22-24; 6:7-8).Therefore, the starting point of a biblical world and life view is the fear of God (Eccles. 7:18).Without that, it is impossible to comprehend the world truly (Prov. 28:5).

Creation and Providence.

The first thing one must know after the fear of God are the works of God in Creation and Providence. Man is not some cosmic accident and he is not sustained by impersonal naturalistic forces. He exists in this world because he and the world were made for each other. The heavens and earth were made by God (Job 9:8; 26:13; 38:7) and so also was man (Job 33:4-6; Eccles. 12:1; 7:29). Indeed, part of the lesson Job learned was about the remarkable fitness of creatures to their environment (Job 39:1-8, 27-30).

In addition to the doctrine of Creation, we are also told about God’s sustaining Providence and His continual Governance over what He has made. It is the Lord who preserves men (Job 34:14), sometimes to the bewilderment of some (Eccles. 6:8-12; 7:15; Job. 12:6). But God keeps His own counsel (Job 40:2, 8; 33:13). It is for us to trust in Him (Job 13:15; Prov. 3:5-6; 16:3, 20; Eccles. 12:13), and not to question His ways (Eccles. 8:4; Prov. 3:7).

We are told that there is a time for everything (Eccles. 3:1ff), and that we cannot know what is to happen in the future (Eccles. 8:6-7). We must see that things belong to God (Job 41:11), and that He preserves and governs this world with infinite wisdom (Prov. 8:14ff; Eccles. 11:5).

The Plight of Man.

To begin to make sense of our world it is imperative to take the Fall seriously. Man is born to trouble (Job 5:7). He has departed from the right way (Prov. 2:13, 15; 4:14-15, 19; Eccles. 7:29).In fact, there is a way which seems right to him, but its end is death (Prov. 14:12; 16:25).

The problem with man is his proud rebellion against his Maker (Prov. 1:29-30). He is right in his own eyes (Prov. 12:15; 16:2), trusting to himself (Prov. 28:26), while making a mock at sin (Prov. 14:9). All men are sinners (Eccles. 7:20; 8:11; Job 15:16). They are froward (perverse in their reasoning-Prov. 21:8; 3:32; 6:12), and foolish (Prov. 10:23; 5:14b; 18:6-7; 27:22). This means they cannot interpret God’s world wisely. In other words, the view of life of a sinner is at odds with God’s purpose for us. All this means that, try as he might, fallen man cannot find meaning without God (Prov. 17:24; Eccles. 1:14; 2:1-11).


There is no doubt that men are guilty (Job 4:17; 9:28; Eccles. 9:3). A man’s sins find him out (Job. 4:8; 13:26; Prov. 11:5-6, 27:22:8). This means the prospect of judgment lies before every man (Eccles. 3:17; 11:9; 12:14; Prov. 24:12; 20:26). There is no point in railing against God. He is completely just (Job 37:23; 8:3). This knowledge ought to provoke men to depart from evil (Prov. 16:6), for the righteous shall be approved (Job 17:9; Prov. 4:18; 11:31). The voice of wisdom beckons us to forsake our foolishness and live (Prov. 9:6). God is a Redeemer as well as a Judge (Job 19:25; 13:16). It is wise, then, to be reconciled with Him (Job 22:21).

To summarize, we have shown that a proper perspective on the world must include several facets not associated with the thinking of the person without God, beginning with the fear of God Himself. Next we have to see the world as created and sustained by God. A true understanding of ourselves must take into account the fall and rebellion of man and the noetic effects of sin which renders the natural man’s autonomous reasoning foolish. Nevertheless, men sense the coming judgment of God on them (Job 15:21; 18:14). We ought to acknowledge all these things and attempt to live our lives in reference to them (Prov. 4:23).

How Shall We Then Live?

In the eighth chapter of Ecclesiastes, we find a great passage upon which to begin to build a practical world and life view. We shall briefly describe some of its elements. If we allow the “king” in these verses (see vv. 2-4) to be the Lord, we are reminded against foolishly dismissing ourselves from His presence, and if we do, not to remain “in an evil thing”, for God will do what He wills (v. 3). Besides, to “go out of His sight” is to leave the place of power (v. 4). It follows that to “keep the commandment” is to ensure peace (vv. 2, 5), and to know God’s time and judgment when it comes (v. 6). And if it tarries and we are tempted to be glum (v. 8), we can rouse ourselves, trusting to God’s providence (v. 7).

In addition to the above, one ought to give heed to the voice of wisdom elsewhere in these books. Proverbs, for example, prescribes many measures for staying out of the snares of the wicked (Prov. 1:10; 4:14-15; 23-27; 6:20-35; 8:33-36; 11:2-4, etc.). We find the same in Job (5:3; 8:20; 23:12). We should understand that filling our lives with worldly joys cannot shut up the deep undertow of sorrow and discontent which such a lifestyle produces (Prov. 24:13).


Finding the Will of God

It is a commonly held belief among Christians that one of the most perplexing problems we experience is knowing what the will of God is for our lives. The reason for this is not hard to find. For one thing, we are most sensitive to this question in times of stress, when the stakes are high and our emotions are perturbed. We want a clear path to appear in front of us – we want to know what our heavenly Father would have us do.  In these situations we turn to God and pray for guidance.  But frequently we discover that the help does not come to us when and how we think it should, and we begin to wonder if there is some secret key to the will of God which we need to discover.

  1. The Problem with Fleeces

Everyone is familiar with what Gideon did when he wanted absolute assurance that he was not deluded, but that the Lord truly had told him to take on the Midianites – he laid a fleece out, not once but twice (Judg. 6:36-40).

So we say to ourselves, well, if God honored Gideon’s prayer for guidance and God answered him, He may honor my request – after all, we say to ourselves, we just want to do the right thing in God’s sight. So we spread before God our fleeces, metaphorically speaking. For example, we pray,

“Father, if I am meant to go into business with this guy then let such and such happen.”


“Lord, if it is your will for me to meet the women who will be my wife then let her come and talk to me at church tonight (P.S. and let her friend who despises me be home sick or something).” We may even cite Gen. 24:12-14 to help our case!

But there are several things wrong about this procedure:

First, it tempts God in that we make stipulations that we then want God to meet. We forget that our Father is also the King.

Second, it contradicts the injunctions which tell us that we must walk by faith and not by sight (or sign).

And third, not infrequently, when our desired ‘sign’ occurs (or some semblance of it), we still feel as much in the dark about things as before.

Further, there are a few exegetical matters which need to be thought through:

First, Gideon already had been given a very clear sign from God and had been told what he must do (Judg. 6:15-23).

In the second place, Gideon had to go to war with a vastly inferior army (135,000 Midianites against his 35,000 Israelites who would be whittled down to 300 – Judg. 7:1-6). “Accordingly,” wrote Leon Wood, “Gideon felt in need of reassurance that God truly wanted him to proceed with this frightening venture.” – Leon J. Wood, The Distressing Days of the Judges, 211-212.

The extraordinary circumstances in which Gideon found himself called for a “double-check.” But they did not call for any new information. In short, Gideon had warrant for his prayer, we do not.  So it is unwise to put out fleeces a la Gideon and expect to get any direction from the exercise. This is because a. Gideon had a vast army to go up against, and, b. because we are to walk by faith, not by sight. So let us pursue this question of the specific will of God further.

  1. How Then Can I Know What God Wants Me To Do?

In his often helpful book Decision Making and the Will of God, Garry Friesen puts forth what he calls “the Wisdom View” (p. 199). Friesen defines his view thus (I have clarified some of his wording and added some thoughts of my own):

First, the revealed commands and principles of God’s Word (i.e. God’s ethical code), are to be obeyed. Thus, where we know what God requires of us (e.g. the Beatitudes, the Armor of God, The Ten Commandments minus the Jewish Sabbath, etc.) we should be striving to please Him. This is the burden of passages like 1 Thess. 4:1f. or Rom. 6:11.

Second, in those areas where the Scriptures give no specific command or principle, and it is not a question or morality per se, the believer is free to responsibly choose his or her course of action – provided they do not violate God’s ethical requirements as set forth especially in the New Testament (e.g. Eph. 4:1-5:21). All decisions must be faith-decisions, since “whatever is not of faith is sin.” (Rom. 14:23).

Finally, the objective of the Christian always to make wise decisions, decisions both spiritual and practical. Thus, the Book of Proverbs comes to the fore here. See e.g. Prov. 3:5-6; 16:3.

Earlier in the book Friesen gives J. I. Packer’s definition of wisdom: “Wisdom is the power to see, and the inclination to choose, the best and highest goal, together with the surest means of attaining it.” Wisdom, (Chokma – which denotes practicality as well as problem-solving), is discovered by those who fear the Lord (Prov. 9:10). This fear forces God into every decision and compels pride and self-centeredness to leave (or at least to take a subordinate place). The culture of pragmatism and the obsession with image which permeates not just secular America but Christian America too (and to the same extent!), means that the thoughtful believer who truly wishes to know God’s guidance will be careful to keep the fear of God always as a mark before him.

To this definition I add these comments of John Stott:

The [general] will of God for the people of God has been revealed in the Word of God. But we shall not find His ‘particular’ will in Scripture. To be sure, we shall find general principles in Scripture to guide us, but detailed decisions have to be made after careful thought and prayer and the seeking of advice from mature and experienced believers.– John R. W. Stott, Authentic Christianity, 248.

Frank's place

The Creation Narrative: Genesis 1 and 2 (pt.10)

Adam is Tested

In the next section (2:15-17) we read of God giving the man a straightforward command:

Of every tree of the garden you may freely eat; but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you may not eat, for in the day that you eat of it you shall surely die.

The tree of the knowledge of good and evil was an actual tree.  It is not called a symbol and need not be seen as one.  I agree with Merrill that we should not think of “good and evil” in this place as contrasting values so much as an idiom for comprehensive knowledge.[1]  Certainly, ethical knowledge would be included, since all knowledge bears an ethical stamp, but the innocence of our first parents does not at all lead us to think they were ignorant of the meanings of the terms “good” and “evil.”  God is communicating meaningfully to Adam, not speaking over his head.  Every word which God speaks to Adam presupposes his ability to receive and comprehend it.  Thus, the expression “to freely eat” was just as well understood as the designation “every tree of the garden.”  Again the warning “in the day you eat of it you shall surely die” was God speaking to a comprehending and responsive creature.  He was not speaking into the air.[2]

Because this is so I wish to re-emphasize the communicative aspect of revelation.  Words which cannot be understood, either because the hearer does not have the tools to understand them, or because they lack the capacity for language itself, are very poor conveyers of meaning and intention.  We cannot, without veering close to blasphemy, predicate such a thing of God.  Adam and Eve understood God’s every word.[3]

Although these verses refer to a prohibition, they in no case speak of a promise for obedience, or any Divine commitment to grant anything to the man and woman.  There is no trace of covenantal language in this section.[4]  And any and every attempt to read a covenant into Genesis 2 (or 3) requires the interpreter to bring along far more speculative material than textual material to fill out the content of such a venture.[5]

But then, why the prohibition?  We are not told outright, but one reason which I find useful is to test and deepen the level of trust and love between the man and God.  Sometimes in life we allow certain trusted friends to know more about us than we vouchsafe to others.  We feel that they are able to understand who we are more deeply because a level of trust has been reached which was not present at the start of our friendship.  Seen like this, God’s warning and testing of Adam was a means of developing the relationship and of teaching Adam more about God as Lord.  It was a test of friendship as much as a test of obedience.

Adam under God’s Instruction

Genesis 2:18-25 features two episodes in which Adam names those brought to him by God.  At first sight the two episodes don’t appear to be related at all.  In fact, the second one; the naming of the animals, almost seems to cut across the first: the problem of the man’s solitariness.  But as the passage is pondered it becomes apparent that what is happening is that the Lord is using the exercise of describing the animals to teach the man about his own situation.  It is noticeable that God does not simply inform the man directly that he does not have a helper and companion.  He sets Adam a course of study through which Adam himself arrives at that conclusion.  Thus, under the guidance of his God, Adam was coming to knowledge through reflecting on what he was encountering in God’s world.  I have no doubt that this is the way all our knowledge (as scientia) was to be gained and used; that is to say, knowledge gained either listening directly to what the Creator said about His world, or indirectly through the process of accruing knowledge by examining and reflecting upon the world under God’s tutelage.  Today the only access to this tutelage is through believing God’s Word.  Yet we remain hugely privileged.  It has rightly been said: (more…)

TELOS Videos on Christian Apologetics

The Telos YouTube Channel has 12 short videos about subjects to do with Christian Apologetics.  These are casual informal introductions at about the college level.   I do not enter into many details about the pros and cons of each position.  My objective is much more humble.  I just want to give a little food for thought about each of the topics covered.  I hope you enjoy viewing.



More Videos in the Series:

11. What is Reason?

10. What is Biblical Faith?

9. True Presuppositionalism

8. Axiomatic Suppositionalism

7. Reformed Epistemology

6. Verificationalism

5. Evidentialism

4. Classical Apologetics

3. The Importance of Truth

2. Why Apologetics is Necessary?

1. What is Apologetics?




Review: Allen Ross on the Psalms (Vol.3)

A Review of Allen P. Ross, A Commentary on the Psalms, Volume 3 (90 – 150), Grand Rapids: Kregel, 1042 pages, hardback 

Finally we have the third and final volume of the Kregel Exegetical Commentary on the Book of Psalms by Allen P. Ross, Professor of Divinity at Beeson Divinity School.  This one covers Psalms 90 through 150 and brings the complete set to three thousand pages.  The first two volumes were outstanding.  I have found that I turn to them first for exegetical and even ques to homiletical material (alongside VanGemeren in the EBC).

Although this review is on Volume 3, I want to say something about the other volumes.  Ross’s introduction in Volume 1 is a very helpful orientation to the Psalter, its forms, its themes, and its theology.  As with his outstanding book on worship, Recalling the Hope of Glory, he concerns himself in these books with the Divine – human encounter.  Take a look, for instance at Ross’s comments on Psalm 8 and Psalm 23 in the first volume, and Psalm 42 in the second, and see how Ross brings you into the context of the human author.  The author is a Bible conservative.  He is not interested in winning friends in the critical academy, although he is a first rate Old Testament scholar.

But my job is to comment mainly on this third volume.  At 1042 pages it is the largest of the three.  The page count includes an Index of Word Studies and a Select Bibliography but no Scripture, Subject or author indices.  Why not?  For no good reason that I can think of!  It is my only complaint with the book and it is not Ross’s fault, it is the publisher’s.  When Kregel make peace with practical common sense and start including proper indexes I will stop moaning about their lamentable absence.

What kind of Commentary is this?  It is first and foremost an interpretation of the biblical text.  That is to say, it is quite single-minded in its basic intent.  If you want to know what the text says, with some insight into what is going on, this is the book for you.  Other commentaries will need to be on hand for those concerned with the theological teaching of each Psalm or with detailed interaction with critical opinions, although Ross does discuss various matters to do with motifs, classification, and ideas about dating and purpose, together with furnishing his own translation.

Usability marks this series overall, and this work doesn’t waste the reader’s time.  This is what makes these excellent volumes for the preacher.  The footnotes are many but they do not overwhelm the student.  They do their job of informing and authorizing certain statements of the author.

The interpretations are coined with an eye for what they would have meant for the Old Testament Jew.  Thus, with the great Davidic Psalm 132 stress is laid upon the faithfulness of God to His covenant with David and how belief in God’s promise leads naturally to confidence in God.  David knows that his descendant will reign on his throne one day.  It is good to find a commentary that takes these things seriously without making them heavenly types.  The troublesome imprecation at the end of Psalm 137 is treated head on as a righteous supplication from those who have suffered or seen great suffering.  Meanwhile Psalm 119 is given 140 pages of exposition.

Allen Ross is one of Evangelicalism’s best scholars.  He has brought to conclusion his Psalms Commentary, and has produced arguably the best exposition of the Psalms available.


This book was sent to me free of charge by the publisher.