Covenant Influences in Zechariah (Pt.2)

Part One

The Branch Builds Yahweh’s Temple

But the scene changes when three visitors from Babylon leave a gift of silver and gold (Zech. 6:9-10).[1]  From these precious materials he is told to make a crown, and then do an odd thing with it; place it on the head of Joshua the high priest (Zech. 6:11).[2]  Then he is to utter certain words, words which cannot pertain to Joshua himself, but of which he plays a symbolic part in illustrating.

Then speak to him, saying, `Thus says the LORD of hosts, saying: “Behold, the Man whose name is the BRANCH! From His place He shall branch out, And He shall build the temple of the LORD;

Yes, He shall build the temple of the LORD. He shall bear the glory, and shall sit and rule on His throne; so He shall be a priest on His throne, and the counsel of peace shall be between them both.’ – Zechariah 6:12-13

    In this enactment we come across a fascinating prefigurement of the role of the Branch upon His arrival.  The meaning of the crowning act is again connected with the man called “the Branch” (Zech. 6:12).  He it is who will unite the high priestly and kingly offices, even building a future temple (Zech. 6:12-13).  So the imagery reaches beyond Joshua, who is an actor in a role, and grabs hold of covenant promises in the Davidic and Priestly covenants.  In this way it certainly alludes to Psalm 110:1-4.[3]

The Lampstand and the Two Olive Trees   

In Zechariah 4 the prophet is woken from sleep and sees a golden lampstand (Zech. 4:2).  Opinions vary as to what this would have looked like.  We cannot be sure that it resembled the familiar menorah we are accustomed to seeing in Jewish symbolism[4], but as no stress is placed upon it, it is safe at least to assume its purpose as a light-giver from God.[5]  Next to the lampstand he saw two olive trees standing either side of it (Zech. 4:3).  They seem to feed it (Zech. 4:12).  Zechariah asks what it all means (Zech. 4:4), but is not directly answered until verse 14, where the answer is, “These are the two anointed ones,[6] who stand beside the Lord of the whole earth.”  That is not much of an explanation, but it will show up again in the last book of the Bible (Rev. 11:4).  Are the two olive trees Joshua the high priest and Zerubbabel[7] the vassal ruler?  Many believe so, but it may not be the case.  The angel’s question, “Do you not know what these are?” (Zech. 4:5, 13), which makes the anticipation grow, and the interposing of an oracle concerning Zerubbabel (Zech. 4:6-10), together with the indistinctness of the eventual answer, seem to keep the prophet at arm’s length.[8]

If indeed we are meant to understand the two olive trees as representing Joshua and Zerubbabel, then the priestly and the leadership roles are given prominence, just as they are in Zechariah 3:6-7 and 6:12-13, but with the difference that here there appears to be a dyadic or two-head leadership in view, the vassal and the high priest.  Whether a dyadic arrangement is meant or not,[9] it has not escaped the notice of commentators that Joshua is pictured “standing before the Angel of the Lord” in Zechariah 3:1, while Zerubbabel is at least directly addressed by God in Zechariah 4:6-10.  Too, the fact that it is God’s grace which upholds both men in these visions (e.g. Zech. 3:4-5; 4:6) leads naturally to the conclusion that they are part of the divinely fed system seen in the lampstand and olive tree vision.  In the context then, it is most likely that these men are the two olive trees, although it is easy to see the utility in this set up (though in an altered form) for use in the vision of the two witnesses in Revelation 11.[10]

What the fourth and fifth visions of Zechariah 3 and 4 demonstrate is that it is God who will restore the kingly and priestly lines in His loyalty to the Davidic and Priestly covenants.  And this was already predicted in the most plain and clear language by Jeremiah (cf. Jer. 33:14ff).  It is by His Spirit (Zech. 4:6) and grace (Zech. 4:7) that Israel still has hope.  The “day of small things” (Zech. 4:10; cf. Hag. 2:3-4) was not to be despised, even though greater expectations had been aroused by men like Ezekiel (Ezek. 36-48).  As we shall see, Zechariah himself will raise far greater expectations in the second half of his book.


[1] I assume that the gift in verse 10 is the silver and gold of verse 11.

[2] Of course, Joshua the High Priest also took part in another symbolic enactment in chapter 3; although that one was visionary not actual.  It also involved the Lord’s Servant, “the Branch” (Zech. 3:8).  The symbolic significance of Joshua’s cleansing and the Divine pronouncement of his iniquities being forgiven (Zech. 3:4), appears to go beyond a mere reestablishment of the priesthood through its head steward, reaching also into the age of Messiah. – See, e.g., Kenneth L. Barker, “Zechariah”, EBC, 625.  I may push farther to find a link between this episode and the consummation of the Priestly covenant in the kingdom (cf. Zech. 3:8-10; cf..Num. 25:11-13; Jer. 33:16-21; Ezek. 44:19-16).

[3] As Klein notes, “The various passages from Isaiah and Jeremiah merge both royal and priestly offices into the messianism of the Branch.” – George L. Klein, Zechariah, 202.  Mention ought also to be made of God’s throne in the Temple in Ezekiel 43:7.

[4] Klein calls it “highly unusual, unlike any other lampstand portrayed in the Old Testament”. – Ibid, 156.

[5] I say “from God” because the lamps are not fed by human hands.  – Ibid.

[6] Literally, “the two sons of oil,” the word for anointed is not present.

[7] Although he was of David’s line, Zerubbabel did not function as a king.

[8] Of course, it is also possible that angel’s question was designed to provoke the prophet to think a little more as the answer was obvious. – See e.g., David Baron, The Visions and Prophecies of Zechariah (London: Morgan and Scott, 1919), 131.

[9] Nearly all critical scholars interpret it this way.  Klein argues against it.  Ibid, 165-166.

[10] See Eugene H. Merrill, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi, 157.

Covenant Influences in Zechariah (Pt. 1)

Zechariah was active from 520 to about 480 B.C.  He is mentioned along with Haggai in Ezra 5:1 and 6:14.  His post-exilic book is remarkable for its imagery[1] and for its sustained messianism.  This has caused some interpreters to despair at an interpretation, especially of its first and last thirds.[2]  His use of covenant terminology is confined to two enigmatic passages (Zech. 9:11; 11:10).  There are covenant intimations in the book (e.g. Zech. 6:15).  But it is apparent that in most everything he says the great biblical covenants are behind it.  The book opens with God’s overture to His people:

The Lord has been very angry with your fathers.  Therefore say to them, ‘Thus says the Lord of hosts: “Return to Me,” says the Lord of hosts, “and I will return to you,” says the Lord of hosts.’ – Zechariah 1:2-3

    The threefold repetition of “Lord of hosts” (i.e. God Almighty)[3] is noticeable.  The God of Israel is not off somewhere in the ether awaiting appeasement, like the pagan gods, as Zechariah 1:8-11 and 18-21 shows.  Rather God upholds the whole scheme of things, and He is Israel’s God, and through Israel He will reach out to the nations, just as He promised in His covenant with Abraham (Gen. 12:1-3; 17:4-5; 18:18; 22:18).  So while a note of divine superintendence over Israel is emphasized by the prophet (e.g. Zech. 2:1-5, 8; 3:2; 8:1-8; 9:16-17; 10:6-8; 12:7-9; 14:8-11), yet the nations, whom the Lord is angry with (Zech. 1:15, 21), will finally be saved:

The book of Zechariah also addresses the nations, merging them into the future picture in much the same fashion as the preexilic prophets did.  Thus the prophet pronounces judgment on the nations due to their sin and rebellion, but he proclaims hope for their conversion as well.  The nations are included in his vision of the ultimate restoration in which all of Yahweh’s people come to worship him (Zech 2:11; 8:20-23; 14:16-19).[4]

    Moreover, the salvation of the world is consciously linked to Israel in its covenant role as “witnesses” (Isa. 43:10-12), or “priests” to the other nations (Exod. 19:6; cf. Zech. 8:20-23).[5]  The same phenomenon is found in the promise to the nations in Zechariah 2:10-13 (cf. Isa. 49:6; 62:1-2).  The “good and comforting words” (Zech. 1:13) that were spoken to Zechariah after he had asked whether God would again bless Israel after the exile provide a kind of heading for the main thrust of the book.[6]  God’s presence will take center stage (Zech. 1:16-17; 2:5, 10; 6:12-13; 8:3, 20-23; 14:9, 16-17).  There is also a nascent proto-trinitarianism within the book; God, the Branch, and the Spirit all being conspicuous within its pages.

The person of the Branch (tsemach) is found in chapter 3 and chapter 6.  The Angel of the Lord predicts the coming of the Branch, whom He calls “My Servant” in Isaianic fashion (cf. Isa. 42:1ff.; 49:3-8).  There is not much added to the promise of the Branch in Zechariah 3:8, but we ought to note the underlying New covenant meaning of the following verses:

I will remove the iniquity of that land in one day.  In that day,’ says the LORD of hosts, `Everyone will invite his neighbor under his vine and under his fig tree.’ – Zechariah 3:9b-10

    The promise of the sudden removal of sin from the land of Israel (cf. Isa. 66:8) would have warmed the hearts of the post-exilic community, reminding them that someday the covenant God would be true to His prophetic word.

The Land-Promise Still Very Much in Force

The land itself is not a “shadow,” of something else.  This is contrary to those who would dogmatically point to passages like 1 Kings 4:25[7] to try to prove that the fulfillment of the land promise was all in the past.  Any such land-promise in the prophets is not just a type of another reality.[8]  One can scarcely get that from reading Zechariah.[9]  For instance,

Sing and rejoice, O daughter of Zion! For behold, I am coming and I will dwell in your midst,” says the LORD.

 “Many nations shall be joined to the LORD in that day, and they shall become My people. And I will dwell in your midst. Then you will know that the LORD of hosts has sent Me to you.

 “And the LORD will take possession of Judah as His inheritance in the Holy Land, and will again choose Jerusalem. – Zechariah 2:10-12

    Yahweh calls the actual land of Israel His “inheritance” and “the Holy Land” in this wonderful passage.  The land will be holy because God Himself will dwell there!  Therefore, just as the ground before Moses was “holy” because of God’s presence (Exod. 3:1-5), so in the coming age, the age of divine government, the whole land of Israel will be holy.

Moreover, God’s people will be extended to include “many nations” (Zech. 2:11).  Not that these foreigners will be reckoned as Israel, but that they will be saved, just as the Abrahamic covenant foretold (Gen. 12:3c).  In words which echo Micah 4:4, and the time of tranquility we have often noted, Zechariah predicts a time when “everyone will invite his neighbor under his vine and under his fig tree.” (Zech. 3:10).  This word of comfort, coming as it does in a scene where Satan is seen accusing the high priest Joshua before God (Zech. 3:1), is very significant.  The Enemy is told in no uncertain terms that “Yahweh has chosen Jerusalem” (Zech. 3:2).  God’s grace cleanses Joshua, and it will restore Israel in the end.  The city and the land were in the hearts of God’s prophets (e.g. Mic. 7:14-20; Dan. 9:1-19), and they trusted that God would finally fulfill all the covenants He had promised.  Zechariah chapters 8 – 14 must be read against this backdrop of covenant expectation.

The verses directly above this one speak of the Branch (Zech. 3:8), which of course carries a kingly connotation, and an inscribed “stone” (Zech. 3:9), which some think alludes to the priesthood.[10]  Although the promise of remission “in one day” (cf. Isa. 66:8) which accompanies the stone is not just for the priesthood, but for the whole land of Israel (Zech. 3:9b).  I have already said that the image of the Branch also occurs in Zechariah 6, where, not coincidentally, it is seen in conjunction with the high priest Joshua.  That chapter begins with a vision of “the four spirits of heaven” (Zech. 6:5), who perform supervisory roles over the earth (Zech. 6:6-8 cf. Dan. 4:17).  Whatever significance they have, the fact that they are revealed demonstrates God’s “hands-on” approach to ruling.  This connection of the spiritual and the physical creation is vital to a biblical creational worldview.  Man is privileged to occupy both realms.  The Creation Project is very much in view in Zechariah.


[1] The many strange visions, particularly in the first half of the book, might seem to shroud the prophet’s message in mystery.  But most of the time the images, the horses (Zech. 1:8), the horns and craftsmen (Zech. 1:18-21), the lampstand and olive trees (Zech. 4:2-3), and the horses and chariots (Zech. 6:1-3), are at least partially explained in the context.  Even the weird vision of the flying scroll and the woman in the basket (Zech. 5:1-11) is for the most part, discernible.  Hence, those who stress the “apocalyptic” content of the visions can err if they fail to pay at least as much attention to the interpretations of them given in the context.  It is the revealed interpretations which we should be more concerned about than the supposed genre employed.

[2] See e.g. Al Wolters, “Zechariah, Book of” in Dictionary of the Old Testament Prophets, eds, Mark J. Boda and J. Gordon McConville, 890.

[3] This is a better way to understand the name rather than the more literal “Lord of powers” or “armies.”  See Walther Eichrodt’s discussion in Theology of the Old Testament I.192-194.

[4] C. Marvin Pate, J. Scott Duvall, et al, The Story of Israel: A Biblical Theology (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity, 2004), 101.

[5] See Alva J. McClain, The Greatness of the Kingdom, 243; Duane A. Garrett, A Commentary on Exodus, 460.  In Ezekiel 5:5 Jerusalem is said to be “set in the midst of the nations”.  This would make it a bright testimony indeed if it was truly “the City of Truth” (Zech. 8:3).

[6] E.g. “He who touches you touches the apple of His eye” (Zech. 2:8).

[7] O. Palmer Robertson, The Israel of God: Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow (Phillipsburg, NJ: P&R, 2000), 13-14.

[8] This is how O. Palmer Robertson ends his book, The Christ of the Covenants (Phillipsburg, NJ: P&R, 1987), 300

[9] Of course, those who insist upon reading the Prophets typologically do not collect their understanding from them either.  Their typology is drafted from their method of reading their interpretation of the New Testament back into the Old Testament.

[10] George L. Klein, Zechariah (Nashville: B & H, 2008), 151.

Covenant in Ezekiel (Pt. 5)

Part Four

A Literal Reading

The structure of Ezekiel reaches its crescendo in the theme of the returning Glory to the Temple in Ezekiel 43:1-7.[1]   This return must be linked with the abandonment of Solomon’s Temple by the Glory-cloud in chapter 11.  There is a narrative-theological arc extending from Ezekiel 8 and 11 over to Ezekiel 43.

This arc from a literal temple to what is often taken to be a spiritual temple at the end of the book, looks hermeneutically unbalanced and forced upon the prophet’s words.  But if this arc and the other details in this section can be adequately accounted for by not spiritualizing them, then the theological fallout is immense.[2]  The strongly covenantal connections involved would, for example, stimulate a long overdue examination of God’s eternal covenant of peace with Phinehas (Num. 25:10-13) and his descendants the Zadokites (cf. 1 Chron. 6:4-8).

The whole section moves logically from the command to Ezekiel to describe the temple (Ezek. 40:4), to a guided tour of the premises, with measurements related at each step (Ezek. 40:6-42:20).  We get a description of the altar and offerings (Ezek. 43:13-27), followed by rules on who can and who cannot enter the sanctuary (Ezek. 44:1-9).  The two-tier priest system, consisting of Zadokites and Levites, is delineated (Ezek. 44:10-16).  Then basic duties are described (Ezek. 44:17-31).  In Ezekiel 45:1-8 the division of the land around the sanctuary is prescribed, beginning with a large “holy” area for the Zadokites, in which the sanctuary itself sits in its own acreage, situated in the center (cf. Ezek. 48:10).  There will also be a smaller area “adjacent to the holy area” given to “the whole house of Israel” who live in the city (Jerusalem).  The “prince,” receives a portion next to the city portion and the holy portion.[3]  A separate large area is for the other Levites.   Several ordinances and offerings finish off the chapter and continue to Ezekiel 46:15.  Then the gifts of the “prince” are mentioned (Ezek. 46:16-18).  This includes a passage about how the prince is not to take other people’s property (Ezek. 46:18).  Whoever this “prince” is then, he is not divine.[4]

More descriptions close chapter 46, and then there is the description of the healing waters which flow out from the door of the temple (Ezek. 47:1-11).  This is followed by an outline of the land inheritance (Ezek. 47:12-23).  The prophet even includes Yahweh’s recollection of His covenant of land:

Thus says the Lord GOD: “These are the borders by which you shall divide the land as an inheritance among the twelve tribes of Israel. Joseph shall have two portions.

You shall inherit it equally with one another; for I raised My hand in an oath to give it to your fathers, and this land shall fall to you as your inheritance.” – Ezekiel 47:13-14 (my emphasis)

To those who place the whole last section of Ezekiel in the past, this is still a late reminder that God has not rescinded the land promise to the nation of Israel.  The reason given for this is the oath He pledged to the Fathers centuries before: To repeat, covenant oaths are hermeneutically fixed points in Scripture.

If the prophetic context is kept in view then the establishment of the nation of Israel around this glorious temple will come to pass in the future in exactly the way the prophet described it.  There has certainly been no such river as is here described in the history of the world until now!  It is not for us to quibble at place names or future sacrifices or sin offerings.  That is not our problem, and the One whose problem it is, is more than capable of resolving any apparent conflicts with our theology.

Ezekiel 48 is remarkable for its two lists of the tribes of Israel.  In Ezekiel 48:1-8, 23-29 lists the borders of each tribe’s inheritance.  Then Ezekiel 48:30-34 the gates of the city are named after the tribes.  But the lists differ!  The list of tribes who are given land is as follows:

Dan, Asher, Naphtali, Manasseh, Ephraim, Reuben, Judah, Benjamin, Simeon, Issachar, Zebulun, and Gad.[5]

    Levi is omitted and Joseph is represented by his two sons, Manasseh and Ephraim.  When we compare the names on the gates of the city, we get the original brothers:

Reuben, Judah, Levi, Joseph, Benjamin, Dan, Simeon, Issachar, Zebulun, Gad, Asher, and Naphtali.

    There is no contradiction here.  Obviously, the reasons for the two lists differ.  Because Levi is given land around the temple, the tribe of Joseph is divided between his sons to make up the twelve.

The last verse in Ezekiel puts a time-stamp on the whole section (Ezek. 48:35).  God is present in the new temple (Ezek. 43:1-5).  The tribes of Israel are around it north and south, and Jerusalem is called Yahweh Shammah (“Yahweh is there”).  This is the coming Kingdom. (more…)

Covenant in Ezekiel (Pt. 3)

Part Two

A Valley Full of Dry Bones

     The first vision in Ezekiel 37 is the best known in the book.  If people are ignorant of everything else in the book, they are often aware of the valley of dry bones, though frequently they have no idea what it means.  It surely doesn’t help when commentators apply the whole passage to the Christian church.

The bones stretch out over a wide area, and the prophet is given an aerial view of them.  When the inspection is over, God asks Ezekiel, “Son of man,[1] can these bones live?” (Ezek. 37:3).  The prophet is wise.  He knows that the answer to all such questions lies with the living God.  So, the Lord gives Ezekiel a command to speak over the bones, and as He speaks the words of God the bones came together and flesh covered them (Ezek. 37:7-8).  As so often in the biblical record, the Lord does not bypass the human instruments He has created to exercise dominion upon earth.  Ezekiel speaks for God and God’s power stands behind the words.

What occurs next repeats the order found in the creation of man in Genesis 2:7.  Life is not ours to bestow.  It is given at the behest of the Creator.  The “great army” (Ezek. 37:10) that stands in front of him is “the whole house of Israel” (Ezek. 37:11).  But which Israel?  We must continue reading to find the answer.  As we proceed, we hear “Israel” say that they are like the dry bones; that they are without a hope and close to being cut off.  This indeed would resonate with the plight of the people in Ezekiel’s time.  They have arrived at this sad end because of their multiplied sins against their covenant God (Ezek. 16:59; 20:37).

The vision of the dry bones becoming living men is further explained in terms of revivication in verses 12 and 13.  God will open their graves and put His Spirit in them and then bring them back into their land (Ezek. 37:14).  The Spirit’s agency suggests not just a bringing back to life but a complete resurrection.[2]  We are back on New covenant territory (cf. Isa. 59:20-21; Ezek. 36:27; 39:29).  But we still have to ask what this all means.  Is there to be a literal resurrection of Israelites under the auspices of the New covenant?  Or is this coming out of the graves a picture of New covenant restoration?  I think it is undoubtedly the latter.  This matches verses 21-23 where God declares He will regather Israel and bring them into their own land, a reunited kingdom, cleansed from their sins.  The resurrection motif amplifies the kind of restoration Israel hopes for.  God’s immense covenant grace is hope’s guarantee.

Whereas the valley of dry bones teaches the revival of Israel in their land, the sign of the two sticks coming together in the prophet’s hand communicates reunification of the scattered tribes.  The visions belong together.  But they must be read entirely.  The prophet is not predicting conditions after the return from Babylon.  He is projecting the realization of God’s covenant promises to the nation.  “David” appears for the last time (Ezek. 37:24-25) first as a king (melek), and then as a prince (nasi).  Although I don’t pretend to know how fit together the Branch as king and David as king, I have no doubt that with a little more clarification there will be no contradiction.  The presiding presence of the God-man (Messiah – Isa. 9:6-7) and the rule of David are not necessarily at odds with one another.  The magnitude of the coming kingdom, coupled with the preeminence of Israel (e.g. Zeph. 3:20), and the insistence of God that men and women participate in the world as image and likeness of Him would indicate that “David, My servant” is indeed David.[3]    (more…)

Covenant in Ezekiel (Pt. 2)

Part One

On the Mountains of Israel

Ezekiel 34 – 39 is bound together by the theme of the return of the presence of God.  But one should also note the repeated refrain “the mountains of Israel.”   The phrase is a favorite one with Ezekiel, who uses it seventeen times.  In fact, it is only found elsewhere in two verses in Joshua (Josh. 11:16, 21).     Up until chapter 34 all four times it is been used it has rung a negative note. But things change in these markedly eschatological chapters.  And whereas in Joshua the phrase was merely topographical, in these last chapters “the mountains of Israel” are not only mentioned topographically, but they are viewed wistfully, even when in Ezekiel 39 the refrain is used of the defeat of Israel’s end-time foe.[1]  The words summon up thoughts of Israel restored to its land.[2]

Ezekiel 34 marks the beginning of the last main section of the book.[3]  The Lord inveighs against the “shepherds” (i.e. the ruling class – e.g. Jer.23:1-4).  They have failed the people (Ezek. 34:4-8).  They have led them astray from the Mosaic covenant.  But where the leaders fail, the covenant God will restore.  He will regather His people and “feed them on the mountains of Israel” (Ezek. 34:13).  He will also judge between them (34:17-22), and, not for the first time, the name of David is brought up.

I will establish one shepherd over them, and he shall feed them– My servant David. He shall feed them and be their shepherd.  And I, the LORD, will be their God, and My servant David a prince among them; I, the LORD, have spoken. – Ezekiel 34:23-24  

I have commented on this “David” under Jeremiah 30:9 and 33:21-22 in the last chapter.  Here again, although perhaps even more directly, David himself is predicted to rule Israel.  I don’t profess to know how to make sense of this.  Could “David” just be code for “Messiah” here?  That is a common understanding.[4]  But it doesn’t say that.  I am content to leave the text alone and wait and see how it all comes together in the coming kingdom, where I am sure there will be many questions answered that are difficult to understand right now.

What comes next repeats the promises of safety and increase (Ezek. 34:25-27), with even the beasts being pacified (Ezek. 34:28).  That does not sound like post-exilic times.  There is also mention of “a covenant of peace” in verse 25.  Williams says that this phrase, along with “everlasting covenant” (wherever the covenant is not specified), are synonymous with the New covenant, and I think he is right.[5]  This means that we are on New covenant ground here.  This will be the ground the prophet stays on, for the most part[6], for the rest of the book.

Ezekiel 36 and 37 are great restoration chapters.  They contain several key elements within the prophetic picture of the Hebrew Bible.  God is speaking directly to “the mountains” in Ezekiel 36:8-13.  From Ezekiel 36:7-9 it appears that while the land of Israel will be blessed with abundance, the surrounding nations (Edom prominent among them, v.5) will “bear their own shame.”  There is an interesting remark of Yahweh when He says He will “do better for you than at your beginnings” (Ezek. 36:11).  This surely means that the prophetic language about Israel returning to the times of their fathers needs to be understood with this betterment in mind.

In verses 16 to 20 there is a rehearsal of Israel’s history of defection and uncleanness.  The nation has profaned God’s great name (mentioned repeatedly in Ezek. 36:20-23), so God Himself will make sure that the situation is reversed (Ezek. 36:21-23).  He will not ensure this by bypassing the nation that has dragged His name through the mud.[7]  The fate of Israel is bound to God’s name and His renown.  This is why He will perform a great work of restitution on the nation.

And I will sanctify My great name, which has been profaned among the nations, which you have profaned in their midst; and the nations shall know that I am the LORD,” says the Lord GOD, when I am hallowed in you before their eyes…etc.  Read Ezekiel 36:23-30.

The making sacred the Lord’s name referred to in the passage will come about only when Israel finally knows Yahweh, and recognizes Who it is that has chosen them out from among the nations of the world (Deut. 7:6; cf. Isa. 46:13).  The way this will be done is by a gathering of the scattered people “from among the nations” (Ezek. 36:24), and a cleansing of the people, both from their uncleanness and their idolatries (Ezek. 36:25).[8]  Please note that the gathering and the redemption are closely associated.  This indicates the gathering is not the recognition of the nation of Israel in 1948, amazing as that was.  It is, I believe, a gathering connected with the time of trouble spoken of by Isaiah (Isa. 24 – 27); Jeremiah (Jer. 30:7), and Daniel (Dan. 12:1).  This implies that Israel will be driven out of the land again, only to be miraculously brought back and saved.[9]  This cleansing will not be superficial, like in Josiah’s time, but will be a genuine conversion of the people, seemingly en masse (Ezek. 36:26).  Verse 26 also includes the covenant formula, which in the absence of berith shows that the prophet is speaking in covenantal terms.[10]

The transformation of a rebellious people into a redeemed nation will entitle them to “dwell in the land” that was bestowed in the covenant with the Patriarchs (Ezek. 36:28).  Permanent possession of their land through the Abrahamic covenant is enabled by the salvation within the New covenant (we have seen that the New covenant provides the salvation needed for fulfillment of God’s other covenants).  Verses 29 and 30 add the other New covenant guarantee of blessing on the land.  All of this is done by the hand of Israel’s covenant God.

Ezekiel 36:24-30 is a sustained Divine pledge to do good to Israel so that they will finally reflect God’s name to the world as they were called to do (cf. Exod. 19:6; Isa. 44:8).  As the passage continues, we read of the restored people becoming aware of their sinful past and mourning over it (Ezek. 36:31-32).  Whether this repentance happens after the establishment of the kingdom or before it is unsure (cf. Ezek. 43:10-11).  As we keep reading, we see that the renovation of the land of Israel will surpass anything that has been seen since the expulsion of Adam and Eve from Eden.  Israel’s ravaged land will “become like the garden of Eden” (Ezek. 36:35. Cf. Isa. 51:3).[11]  A return to Edenic beauty and productivity is a New covenant achievement, brought about solely through Him who is Himself the New covenant.

The need to rebuild (Ezek. 36:33, 35-38) in the context of an eschatological deliverance points to a period of destruction prior to the restoration.[12]


[1] The places where the phrase is used are Ezekiel 34:13, 14 (twice); 35:12; 36:1 (twice), 4, 8; 37:22; 38:8; 39:2, 4, and 17.  The appearance of the phrase in chapter 35 may seem to belie my assertion about the expression being utilized in an eschatological setting in Ezekiel 34 and following.  But the language in Ezekiel 35:8-9, 13 is very final.  The next time Edom is named is in a restoration context (Ezek. 36:4-11).   And when second advent passages like Isaiah 34:1-6; 63:1f. (cf. Amos 9:12) are recalled, in which Edom features prominently, one should not be too quick to push everything in Ezekiel 35 into the past.

[2] Lamar Eugene Cooper, Ezekiel, 335 n.99

[3] See Thomas Renz, The Rhetorical Function of the Book of Ezekiel (Boston: Brill, 2002), 128-130.  Alexander places the division starting in Ezekiel 33:21 when the news of the fall of Jerusalem reaches the exiles; see Ralph H. Alexander, “Ezekiel,” EBC Revised, 657.  In my opinion Ezek. 33:21-33 fittingly closes off the judgment section of the book (chs. 25-33).   Some writers place the last division at the beginning of chapter 33 (e.g., Michael G. McKelvey, “Ezekiel”, A Biblical-Theological Introduction to the Old Testament, 309).  Some other writers divide off the last nine chapters, but I think this is a mistake since important themes in chapters 34 – 39 are continued in the vision of the new temple.

[4] E.g. Ralph Alexander, “Ezekiel,” 836.  But see Charles H. Dyer, “Ezekiel,” in BKCOT, 1295, who thinks it refers to the real David.

[5] Michael D. Williams, Far As The Curse Is Found, 215.

[6] Ezekiel 35 being the possible exception, though see note 4 above

[7] See W. J. Dumbrell, Covenant and Creation, 186, where the author refers to, “the integrity of divine action which continues in accordance with a divine intention to honour promises to Israel.”  When God says He does this act of grace for the sake of His great name it can only be because of His covenants with Israel.  Although Israel repeatedly profanes His name, God will uphold it by being true to His oaths.  It is this alone which guarantees both the restoration and beautification of national Israel and the glorification of the Church.

[8] The promise to “sprinkle (or ‘slosh’) clean water on you” is an image of thorough spiritual cleansing which has been misused as a proof-text for sprinkling babies by both covenant theologians and some dispensationalists.

[9] As we have seen, this involves another exodus (See Isa. 11:11-16; Jer. 23:7-8).

[10] Paul R. Williamson, Sealed with an Oath, 42

[11] These passages have been utilized by those who want to teach an eschatology based on their “Cosmic Temple” model.  It is more likely to view them as simple similes.

[12] On this see George N. H. Peters, The Theocratic Kingdom, 2.104-116

Jeremiah’s Great Eschatological Vision (Pt.5)

Part Four

This is the final installment of this short series.

What Yahweh Thinks of Covenant-Breakers

Having just uttered what is undoubtedly one of the most unambiguous promises in literature, and coming on the back of an entire extended portion on the subject of Israel’s eschatological hope (Jer. 30 – 33), Jeremiah switches gear to relate an incident under the quickly ebbing reign of king Zedekiah.

The background to the story is the desperation of the king and his nobles over the engagement with the overwhelming forces of Nebuchadnezzar, and what was sure to follow (Jer. 34:1f.).  In a last ditch effort to stave off the inevitable, the king and his courtiers turn to Yahweh and, in a fit of religious zeal, they make a covenant before Him in the temple to implement the command contained within the Mosaic covenant (Jer. 34:13-14) to release Hebrew slaves (see Exod. 21:1-11; Deut. 15:12-18).  Dishonorably they went back on their oath and took the slaves back (Jer. 34:8-11); an action that provoked the following response:

you recently turned and did what was right in My sight—every man proclaiming liberty to his neighbor; and you made a covenant before Me in the house which is called by My name. ‘Then you turned around and profaned My name, and every one of you brought back his male and female slaves, whom you had set at liberty, at their pleasure, and brought them back into subjection, to be your male and female slaves.’  “Therefore thus says the LORD: ‘You have not obeyed Me in proclaiming liberty, everyone to his brother and every one to his neighbor. Behold, I proclaim liberty to you,’ says the LORD—‘to the sword, to pestilence, and to famine! And I will deliver you to trouble among all the kingdoms of the earth. – Jeremiah 34:15-17

All is clear.  Because the king and his nobles initially respected God’s covenant stipulations about the liberating of slaves, but then shamefully went back on their word, they profaned God’s holy name.  The crime was made more shameful by the fact that it was a Sabbatical year.[1]  God in return would proclaim a “liberty” to them – a pun on their treachery – to the instruments of destruction.

Then comes the theological hammer blow:

And I will give the men who have transgressed My covenant, who have not performed the words of the covenant which they made before Me, when they cut the calf in two and passed between the parts of it… – Jeremiah 34:18 (Italics added)

Although most interpreters of Jeremiah pass over it, what Yahweh has just said in this verse is of supremest importance for the right treatment of the biblical covenants, and for the interpretation of Scripture.  The basic lesson is that God takes a dim view of the leaders of Judah who went back on their covenant, and again subjugated those who they had sworn to set free.

But the profound truth which can be rightly inferred from Yahweh’s attitude is that He expects those who enter into a solemn covenant oath to “perform the words (dabar) of the covenant.”  The words spoken in the covenant-making rite mean what they say!  If Zedekiah and the princes did not intend to actually perform these words they ought not to have vowed to do them.  That is the clear message from God to them (and to us).  Covenants are not things you can manipulate after-the-fact to suit yourself.  They were and are inflexible things.  The very unyielding quality of covenants underlined their solemnity and reliability.  That is precisely why God makes covenants.  He wants us to know that He means what He says!

The stunning upshot from this is only fully seen once one has comprehended the fact that the Speaker pronouncing doom upon oath-breakers is a Covenant-Maker bar none!  God Himself requires that those who enter into an oath perform their words (cf. Eccles. 8:2; 1 Ki.2:42-43; Psa. 89:34).  As Ezekiel asks about Zedekiah’s abortive attempt to secure the help of Egypt, which involved him breaking the oath he took before Nebuchadnezzar (Ezek. 17:11-19), “Can he break a covenant and still be delivered?” (Ezek. 17:15c).  A covenant that does not mean what it says and whose words are not binding on the one that made the oath is the most foolish and deceitful of things: it is the epitome of the abuse of language.

But it is just at this point that we are confronted by the obvious reference to what God did when making the Abrahamic covenant in Genesis 15.  He alone passed between the divided animal parts and spoke the “words of the covenant” made with the sleeping patriarch as He did so (see esp. Gen. 15:17-21).  Would the covenant God fail to perform the terms of an oath that He alone entered in to?  If so, what would be the point of being a covenant God (cf. Heb. 6:13-18)?  And if He is at least as faithful to His oaths as He expects others to be (in the midst of repeating His own pledges through the prophet – Jer. 31:31-37 & 33:17-26), then the recipients of a divine oath are on the most solid and unmovable ground imaginable!  It all comes down to “the words of the covenant”!  That is the heart of biblical covenantalism; the very underpinning of this book. (more…)

Jeremiah’s Great Eschatological Vision (Pt.4)

Part Three

The Abundance of Peace and Truth

Jeremiah 33 opens by referencing the destruction that has been made upon Jerusalem (“this city” in v.4), where the inhabitants had to demolish houses to build fortifications (Jer. 33:1-4).  Yahweh declares that although He will not save them from the Babylonians, He does intend to heal the city and bring to it “an abundance of peace and truth” (33:6).  This will involve a return from captivity (33:7), which to the prophet’s hearers would put them in mind of their eventual return from Chaldea.  But again, just as with 32:28-41, we should hesitate to reach that conclusion because God also promises redemption and national preeminence for Israel among the nations of the world (33:8-9).[1]  There is a return to the theme of rejoicing (Isa. 35:1-2; 61:10; 65:18; Jer. 31:13; Zeph. 3:14), but it incorporates cultic elements; the “house of the Lord” being prominent (Jer. 33:11).  These features of salvation, national ascendancy, and celebration push the prophecy into the time of covenant consummation.  What one chooses to do with the temple in verse 11 will depend on the level of sufferance one has for a temple and priesthood in the post-advent kingdom era.

Unfortunately, a survey of the works of both dispensational and covenant theologians will reveals a frustrating neglect of the second half of Jeremiah 33.[2]  Dumbrell ventures to say that the passage adds little to what was said in Jeremiah 31:31ff.[3]  Dispensationalists in particular should see the importance of the section.  But they overlook it, I believe, because they are more concerned about dispensations than they are about God’s covenants.  Verses 14 to 26 together form perhaps the single most sustained challenge to amillennial eschatology in the whole Bible.  Where they are treated, they are often dealt with hurriedly and inaccurately.[4]

The section begins with the promise that “the days are coming” when God’s intentions for Israel and Judah will be brought to pass (Jer. 33:14).  The note of a coming unification of the divided tribes is struck once more.

What follows reminds the reader of what was read in chapter 23:5-6, but there are differences.  The introductory phrase places a definite point of fulfillment before us.  We should look for the realization of these prophecies when “a Branch of righteousness” reigns and ushers in “judgment and righteousness” worldwide.  Repeated in Jeremiah 33:15-16 is the idea of peace and safety in a redemptive context that we have noted several times already.  The most striking difference between Jeremiah 23:5-6 and here is the substitution of the king in Jeremiah 23:6 for the city in Jeremiah 33:16.  In this place, Jerusalem is called by the name of its righteous Sovereign.  This does not mean that the city will no longer be called Jerusalem.  In the Bible people and things are given names of reference as a way of speaking of a characteristic.  In this same way the Messiah is called “Immanuel” in Isaiah 7:14 and the four (or five) names in Isaiah 9:6.

The next two verses include specific references to two covenants.  Verse 17, although the wording is unique, reminds one of 2 Samuel 7:13, 16, Psalm 89:3-4, 34-37 and underscores the perpetuity of the Davidic covenant in no uncertain terms.  The question which might occur to some is why this covenant needs to be mentioned in light of the great promise of the Branch in Jeremiah 33:15.  I speculate that it could refer not only to the Messiah, but to David himself, whom we may recall was mentioned in Jeremiah 30:9, as well as in Hosea 3:5.  Ezekiel has something to add so I will defer further comments until then.

The sentence continues by introducing another group of men whose survival was threatened by the looming exile.  The Levites were to be left with no temple.  As they had proven themselves unworthy of the temple ministration this was just the culmination of the disaster that had already beset the worship of Yahweh.  Notwithstanding the word of God is clear: the Levites will carry on their work seemingly in tandem with the restored Davidic regency (Jer.33:17-18).  Whether or not this presents a problem of conflict with the New Testament is not for me to decide while I am studying the Old Testament prophets.  I earnestly ask my reader to stick with the unveiling process presented in the Holy Scriptures, and not to introduce material that had not been written in Jeremiah’s time.  The structure of this book deliberately waits to come across revelation as it was revealed in history and seeks to build up a picture of the prophetic and covenant-led landscape.  Reading the Bible backwards is, I firmly believe, a huge mistake, which is almost guaranteed to obscure the unfolding truths of Divine revelation.  What invariably ends up happening is that plain and clear revelation is simply brushed aside in the rush to arrive at conclusions the New Testament writers are assumed to have held.

The Most Strongly-Worded Pledge of God in Either Testament

We have already read an accentuated guarantee that the Lord intends to preserve a united nation of Israel in Jeremiah 31:35-37.  What more needs to be said?  What else needs to be underscored?  In light of the fact that God’s covenant word has been routinely ignored or reinterpreted by the Church throughout its history, these transparent words of the Governor and Sustainer of history exist as a reproof to those who bend God’s promises out of all recognition.[5]

Instead of the descendants of Israel being given categorical guarantees, the lineages of David and of Levi are chosen out for unqualified assurances.  The oracles concern the throne of Israel and the altar (Jer. 33:17-18).  They will have innumerable descendants (33:22), which rather puts the cat among the pigeons for those who believe that the subject of the Davidic oracle is Christ.  Without a doubt the figure in verse 15 is Christ (the Branch), but He cannot be who is meant in verses 22 and 26 because those verses speak of descendants (plural).

This is where we must return to comments made at Jeremiah 30:9 and the prediction of a David redivivus.    The covenant with David holds fast into the Kingdom of Righteousness and Peace, in “the latter days” (Jer. 30:24).  Jeremiah 33:21-22 does not require more than one descendant to occupy the throne.  Only that David will have descendants of whom one will rule.[6]  The details are hard to make clear, but if Messiah the Branch is reigning from Jerusalem, it is possible that another Davidic ruler will also rule under Him,[7] maybe David himself, although verse 21 emphasizes a son.  Prophecies are short things.  They are not full descriptions.  We are forced to piece together a prophetic picture, even though the picture is not complete. (more…)

Jeremiah’s Great Eschatological Vision (Pt. 3)

Part Two

The Guarantee of the Lord of Creation and Providence

Returning to where we left off in Jeremiah 31, after Jeremiah has revealed a New covenant to replace the Mosaic covenant, he is given revelation which underlines its validity.

Thus says the LORD, Who gives the sun for a light by day, the ordinances of the moon and the stars for a light by night, who disturbs the sea, and its waves roar (The LORD of hosts is His name):

If those ordinances depart from before Me, says the LORD, then the seed of Israel shall also cease from being a nation before Me forever.”

Thus says the LORD: “If heaven above can be measured, and the foundations of the earth searched out beneath, I will also cast off all the seed of Israel for all that they have done, says the LORD. – Jeremiah 31:35-37

As Thompson observes, this promise “declares the impossibility of Israel ever being forsaken again by Yahweh.”[1]  It is the God of creation and providence who is the Guarantor of Israel’s permanence.  Just as He has established the fixed orders of the sun, moon and stars at creation week, so He will establish the descendants (seed)[2] of Israel perpetually (Jer. 31:35-36).  But it is the next verse that is really striking, at least to this writer.  It appeals to the human investigation of the way God originally planned out the heavens and the earth (Gen. 1:1. Cf.  Psa. 33:6, 9).   That is to say, it appeals to God’s decrees; His secret thoughts and actions (Deut. 29:29).  From this we can gather that God’s affectionate choice of Israel, despite “all that they have done,” is of the same substance (Deut. 7:6; Isa. 41:8).  God has spoken.  It is not for men to revise His words and reissue them to fit their theologies.

What function does Jeremiah 32 have within the set of chapters 30 through 34?  It has to do with the prophet’s purchase of his cousin’s field at Anathoth.  The field was worthless, since Nebuchadnezzar and his army were bearing down upon it at the time of writing (Jer. 32:24-25).  Why buy a piece of land which in short shrift would become the possession of the Babylonian Empire?  Even though they are included in what scholars refer to as “The Book of Consolation,” at first the chapter doesn’t seem to fit.  The chapter declares that because of the continued sins of the people He is going to deliver them over to Nebuchadnezzar and the Babylonians (Jer. 32:28-36).  But at verse 37 the narrative turns suddenly to speak once more about a divine rescue where, after God’s fury has subsided, He will regather Israel and make them “dwell safely” (32:37).  Then straight after we find Yahweh issuing His covenant refrain, “They shall be my people and I will be their God” (32:38), followed immediately by these words:

then I will give them one heart and one way, that they may fear Me forever, for the good of them and their children after them.

 And I will make an everlasting covenant with them, that I will not turn away from doing them good; but I will put My fear in their hearts so that they will not depart from Me.

 Yes, I will rejoice over them to do them good, and I will assuredly plant them in this land, with all My heart and with all My soul.’ – Jeremiah 32:39-41

Here is a clear allusion to the spiritual transformation which will be wrought in the hearts of the remnant in accordance with the New covenant.  The “everlasting covenant” which is mentioned in verse 40 is, I firmly contend, the same New covenant, since unlike the Mosaic covenant, this covenant insures the waywardness of Israel will be brought to its end and they will forever serve Yahweh as His special people.  In this way the New covenant succeeds in fulfilling the purpose of God expressed in Exodus 19:5-6 where the old covenant, through unregenerate hearts, inevitably failed. (more…)

Jeremiah’s Great Eschatological Vision (Pt.1)

Excerpts from the book The Words of the Covenant: A Biblical Theology  (forthcoming)

As far as biblical covenantalism goes, the prophecies in Jeremiah 30 through 33, supported by chapters 34 and 35 are critical.[1]  After the prophet is heard in his own right, the covenantal picture that has been forming so far really starts to take shape.  When Jeremiah’s historical situation is considered the covenantal picture is only reinforced all the more.[2]

The series begins when Jeremiah is commanded to “Write in a book for yourself all the words that I have spoken to you.” (Jer. 30:2).  A written record of his utterances is required.  The reason given for this is that,

behold, the days are coming,’ says the LORD, `that I will bring back from captivity My people Israel and Judah,’ says the LORD. `And I will cause them to return to the land that I gave to their fathers, and they shall possess it.’ – Jeremiah 30:3

    The phrase “the days are coming” is often connected with the eschaton, just as are the promises of peace and safety.  This verse predicts a return from captivity.  Most interpreters assume that by this the prophet has in mind the return from Babylon (Ezra 1 – 2).  But as the oracle proceeds more than this is in view.

Firstly, one should note the word translated “possess” (yarash).  The word denotes taking possession; something which the returnees under Zerubbabel and Ezra never did.  They were always no better than vassals under the Persian king.

The passage unfolds with a prediction of a time of great trepidation (Jer. 30:5-6).  Then we are told:

Alas! For that day is great, so that none is like it; and it is the time of Jacob’s trouble, but he shall be saved out of it. – Jeremiah 30:7

So this time of difficulty will be of such intensity that it will have no equal.[3]  It is a time of suffering for Israel, for it is “the time of Jacob’s trouble.” (Jer. 30:7).  Quite what this time is, and when it is Jeremiah doesn’t say.  Or does he?  As for the “what” we are not told (although later prophecies will improve the picture).  But as for “when” the context, along with previous oracles, may give us some guidance.  The promise that Israel will be delivered out of this terrible time is associated, not with 538 B.C., but with the return of king “David” (Jer. 30:9).  From Jeremiah 23:5 we expect that the man called “the Branch” will be related to David, but this statement is more definitive.  It is not a descendant of David who is spoken about, but David himself.  And this is not an isolated incident; Jeremiah’s contemporary Ezekiel twice refers to David as ruling in eschatological settings (Ezek. 34:23-24; 37:24-25).

Are we then to expect a risen David to reign again over the kingdom of Israel in its approaching golden age?  Well, no believing student of the Bible refuses to believe that the Old Testament saints will be raised (although they may not ponder the implications very much).  The resurrection of David, or for that matter, of Jeremiah, Ezekiel and other saints, is no pious myth.  Jesus Himself said that since God is the God “of the living”, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob are alive (Matt. 22:32).  Very well, will they forever be disembodied spirits?  Job didn’t think so (Job 19:25-27).

But what of David once more ruling over Israel?  Jeremiah and Ezekiel say he will.  Perhaps they meant us to understand a descendant of David’s?  Perhaps so.  I will leave things there until later.  But what about the timing of the deliverance of Jeremiah 30:7?  Things start to come more into focus with verses 10 and 11:

Therefore do not fear, O My servant Jacob,’ says the LORD, `Nor be dismayed, O Israel; for behold, I will save you from afar, and your seed from the land of their captivity. Jacob shall return, have rest and be quiet, and no one shall make him afraid.

For I am with you,’ says the LORD, `to save you; though I make a full end of all nations where I have scattered you, yet I will not make a complete end of you. But I will correct you in justice, and will not let you go altogether unpunished.’ – Jeremiah 30:10-11 (My emphasis)

    Israel (“Jacob”) will be brought back from captivity (as in verse 3), and the Lord will ensure that their restoration to their land is tranquil and unencumbered (30:10).  The guarantee of peace and safety that we saw above is again made.  Although Israel will be punished for their sins (30:11), which may refer back to the “time of Jacob’s trouble” in verse 7, they will be delivered.  So we get a time of tribulation for Israel, followed by a time of serene possession of the land, when “David” will be their king. 

I do not see how this could refer to the return from the captivity in Babylon.  This belongs in the eschaton along with Amos 9:11-15; Hosea 2:14-23; Micah 4:1-8; Isaiah 2:1-5; 11:1-12; 62:1-5, and Jeremiah 23:1-8.  Chapter 30 will go on to repeat the message of comfort for Israel (Jer. 30:17-22), which ends with the covenantal expression, “You shall be My people, and I will be your God.” (Jer. 30:22).  The notion of covenant is never very far away.  At the very end of the chapter Jeremiah reminds God’s people that “in the latter days you will consider it” (30:24).

The vision continues unabated into chapter 31.  This chapter is famous for its introduction of the term “New covenant”.  But that comes later in the chapter.  The first thing to note is the expression of love (“I have loved you with an everlasting love” (Jer. 31:3), and the way Yahweh refers to Israel as “O virgin of Israel” (Jer. 31:4, 21).  Not, as in some other contexts, in an ironic way (e.g. 18:13), but in the terms of His covenant promise (31:1).  Therefore, we meet with language of comfort for “the remnant” (31:7), and a declaration of a coming salvation:

Hear the word of the LORD, O nations,
And declare it in the isles afar off, and say,
‘He who scattered Israel will gather him,
And keep him as a shepherd does his flock.’

For the LORD has redeemed Jacob,
And ransomed him from the hand of one stronger than he.

Therefore they shall come and sing in the height of Zion,
Streaming to the goodness of the LORD—
For wheat and new wine and oil,
For the young of the flock and the herd;
Their souls shall be like a well-watered garden,
And they shall sorrow no more at all. – Jeremiah 31:10-12

    Any honest unpacking of this passage will maintain that God intends to regather His people.[4]  But this regathering will involve redemption and blessings upon the land (cf. Hos. 2:20-22; Amos 9:13-15; Isa. 35:5-10).  The oracle continues with predictions of rejoicing among the populace (Jer. 31:13), and blessings on the priesthood (31:14).  The priests will appear again in prophetic context in Jeremiah 33.


[1] One might also include Jeremiah 29, especially because the refrain about Yahweh bringing back Israel from captivity to a situation very different than what obtained after the 70 years were ended (see Jer. 29:14; 30:3, 18; 31:23; 32:44; 33:7, 11, 26).  These passages are eschatological in nature.

[2] Childs notices that these chapters (Jer. 30-33) precede the description of the fall of Jerusalem.  “The effect,” he says, “of this ordering of the material re-emphasizes the belief that promise was a part of the divine plan from the outset.  It did not arise from a last-minute feeling of compassion to salvage something from the debacle.” – Brevard S. Childs, Introduction to the Old Testament as Scripture, 351

[3] Very similar language concerning Israel is seen in Daniel 12:1 and Mark 13:19-20.

[4] As a matter of fact, as Allen observes, Jeremiah “refers to forgiveness more than any other prophetic book.” – L. C. Allen, “Jeremiah: Book of” in Dictionary of the Old Testament Prophets, edited by Mark J. Boda & J. Gordon McConville, 438

Jeremiah and Covenant

Another excerpt from The Words of the Covenant: A Biblical Theology

A Concern for God’s Covenants  

The prophet Jeremiah is certainly concerned about covenant.  He refers constantly to the Mosaic covenant (e.g. Jer.11:1-12), especially as understood in Deuteronomy.  But chapter 3 shows him to be focused also on the Davidic covenant (Jer. 3:17), and the land aspect of the Abrahamic covenant (Jer. 3:18. Cf. 25:5).  Having noted this there are still signs of God’s allegiance to Israel, as when in chapter 10 Yahweh calls Himself “the Portion of Jacob” (Jer. 10:16), and the prophet follows this up by calling Him “the hope of Israel” (14:8).  So even though God knows how they have “defiled My land” (Jer. 16:18), and He will drive them out of the land for seventy years (Jer. 25:11), He will bring them back to it (Jer. 16:14-15).[1]

Jeremiah is also, (not so coincidentally), the prophet of “the word of the Lord” (dabar Yahweh), referring to it “or similar phrases 157 times out of the total of 349 times such phrases are used in the Old Testament.”[2]

Jeremiah 11 contrasts the integrity of Yahweh in bringing Israel into the land, and the rebellion of the people to the terms of the Mosaic covenant.[3]  It is obvious from chapter 11 that God wants to gift the land to Israel.  In Jeremiah 11:3-5 it is made perfectly clear that God wanted to “establish the oath” that He swore to the Fathers[4].  Verse 5 might encourage those who teach the fulfillment of the land promises in either the time of Joshua or Solomon.  But this conclusion confuses the Exodus promises with the Abrahamic promises which preceded them.  Although the prophet is harking back to Deuteronomy 27-28, the covenants with Abraham, Phinehas, and David figure strongly in this book in at least a few places.  The Mosaic covenant was bilateral, in that both God and the people uttered oaths, whereas these three covenants were not.  We must see how Jeremiah handles the unilateral covenants before we make our minds up about whether the land promises still await final fulfillment.  Chapter 11 is a depiction of the people’s idolatrous state despite Josiah’s reform and despite Jeremiah’s warnings about defection from the Mosaic covenant.  It is both an announcement and a vindication of the coming captivity.

Kingdom Ground                       

We are very definitely on kingdom ground in chapter 23.  Jeremiah 23:1-8 contains one of the relatively few Messianic predictions in the book of Jeremiah.  It begins with the prophet denouncing the false shepherds who mislead God’s people (Jer. 23:1-2).  Then comes another prophecy of a great regathering of “the remnant” from different parts of the world.  They will be given better shepherds (Jer. 23:3-4).  Following this is a beautiful restoration passage in which the person of “the Branch” is central:

“Behold, the days are coming,” says the LORD,
“That I will raise to David a Branch of righteousness;
A King shall reign and prosper,
And execute judgment and righteousness in the earth.

In His days Judah will be saved,
And Israel will dwell safely;
Now this is His name by which He will be called:

The Branch (tsemach) is again of the line of David, which links Him with the Ruler of Micah 5:2 and the Branch (netser) of Isaiah 11:1-10.  Just as in Isaiah 11:4-5 He is a righteous judge of the earth.  The mention of Judah and Israel reinforces the future unity of the divided peoples just as in Jeremiah 3:18.   Here the great King who is coming is called by a name: Yahweh Tsidkenu or “Yahweh our Righteousness.”  Present too are several of the same restoration ingredients that we have seen before.  What should not be missed is the eschatological reference to a reunited Israel dwelling safely (23:6).  This idea of peace and security is essential to grasp.  It is repeated in many prophecies of the coming aeon (e.g. Jer. 23:4; 32:37; 33:16. Cf. Mic. 4:4; Isa. 40:9; Zeph. 3:13; Ezek. 34:25, 28).  Until this pledge has been realized it cannot be said that God has fulfilled His oaths to Israel.

Jeremiah 23:7 and 8 contain a second Exodus motif such as the one we saw in Isaiah 11.[5]  This second Exodus is not, as is often claimed, a figurative contrivance.  It is rather a literal one; the surrounding context making this the wisest interpretation.  There is no reason, other than presumption, to consign these words to the pictorial-symbolic realm.  The future regathering of Israel (to be treated below) will feature another “exodus crossing” although not in the same place.  This time the people will come from the north (Jer. 23:8), as well as from the south and east (Isa. 11:11).

There is another possible reference to the future regathering in Jeremiah 29:11-14.

For I know the thoughts that I think toward you, says the LORD, thoughts of peace and not of evil, to give you a future and a hope.

Then you will call upon Me and go and pray to Me, and I will listen to you.

And you will seek Me and find Me, when you search for Me with all your heart.

I will be found by you, says the LORD, and I will bring you back from your captivity; I will gather you from all the nations and from all the places where I have driven you, says the LORD, and I will bring you to the place from which I cause you to be carried away captive.

This passage appears to match similar eschatological passages in the earlier prophets.  Admittedly, it is settled within the context of the Babylonian Captivity (Jer. 29:10, 15), but the verses do not reflect the situation experienced by those who returned home, so they could well be proleptic (anticipatory), having to do with the final regathering before the second advent.


[1] This return to the land appears to be the return from the Babylonian captivity (e.g. Jer. 29:10).  But some of the wording looks beyond the late sixth century B.C. and points us forward to a time when they will “search for me with all your heart” (Jer. 29:13b); a sentiment which echoes the eschatological leanings of Deuteronomy 30:1-10.

[2] Walter C. Kaiser, Jr., The Promise-Plan of God, 197

[3] I do not think the covenant referred to as “this covenant” in Jer. 11:2-3 is the covenant sworn under Josiah in 2 Kings 23:1-3.  The connections with Exodus and Deuteronomy seem too strong.

[4] In view of the description of the land as “flowing with milk and honey” and the mention of the fathers in connection with the Exodus (11:4, 7), it is best to identify these “fathers” as those of the time of Moses.

[5] It is also found earlier in Jeremiah (Jer. 16:14-15).